湖南省雷暴时空特征及变化趋势
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引用本文:姚 蓉,许 霖,唐 佳,等.湖南省雷暴时空特征及变化趋势[J].气象与环境科学,2017,40(3):65-70.Yao Rong, Xu Lin, Tang Jia, et al.Spatial-temporal Features and Variation Trends of Thunderstorms in Hunan[J].Meteorological and Environmental Sciences,2017,40(3):65-70.
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作者单位
姚 蓉,许 霖,唐 佳,等  
DOI:10.16765/j.cnki.1673-7148.2017.03.011
基金项目:
中文摘要:利用1971—2010年湖南地面气象观测站观测资料,采用气候倾斜率、EOF和小波分析等方法,研究湖南雷暴日的气候特征。结果表明:湖南年雷暴日数较多,年际变化大,总体上呈线性下降趋势;雷暴季节性变化明显,春夏季水汽输送加强和不稳定能量增加,有利于雷暴天气的发生;雷暴存在明显的日变化差异,春季主要出现在上午,夏季午后对流发展旺盛,多出现在午后到傍晚;湖南雷暴日空间分布可分为全省一致型、南北差异型和“T”字型三种,其中全省一致型是雷暴分布的主要特点,与受到同一天气系统和共同的因子影响有关;在周期分布上,湖南省雷暴的发生存在2~4 a、5~6 a的振荡周期,10~12 a的振荡周期具有全域性。
中文关键词:雷暴  时空分布  气候趋势  EOF  小波分析
 
Spatial-temporal Features and Variation Trends of Thunderstorms in Hunan
Abstract:Using the observation data at meteorological stations in Hunan province from 1971 to 2010,the climate characteristics of thunderstorm days were analyzed by means of climatic trends,empirical orthogonal function and wavelet analysis.The results show that the number of annual mean thunderstorm days is more,the annual fluctuation is large,while the total trend of thunderstorm days is decreasing in Hunan.The seasonal variation of thunderstorm is obvious.The increasing water vapor transport and instability energy is conducive to the occurrence of thunderstorm in spring and summer.The thunderstorm has obvious differences in daily variation.It appears primarily in the morning in spring,and in the afternoon to evening in summer because the convections develop quickly in the summer afternoon.The spatial distribution of thunderstorm days in Hunan can be divided into entire area type,south-north type and ‘T’ font type.The entire area type is the main feature of thunderstorm distribution,which is related to the impact of the same weather system and common factors.The thunderstorm days show the short oscillating periods of 2—4 years and 5—6 years,and the long periods of 10—12 years.
Keywords:thunderstorm  temporal and spatial distribution  climatic trend  EOF  wavelet analysis
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