城市化对咸宁地区风速和相对湿度的影响分析
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引用本文:成 姣,任永建,张 艳,等.城市化对咸宁地区风速和相对湿度的影响分析[J].气象与环境科学,2017,40(4):57-62.Cheng Jiao,Ren Yongjian,Zhang Yan,et al.Impact Analysis of Urbanization on Wind Speed and Relative Humidity in Xianning Area[J].Meteorological and Environmental Sciences,2017,40(4):57-62.
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作者单位
成 姣,任永建,张 艳,等  
DOI:10.16765/j.cnki.1673-7148.2017.04.008
基金项目:
中文摘要:利用1981—2014年的地面观测资料、NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,根据卫星数据实现城郊站点分类,选取赤壁站作为城市站,崇阳站作为郊区站,分析咸宁地区相对湿度和风的年和季节变化特征,并采用UMR(Urban Minus Rural)方法和OMR(Observation Minus Reanalysis)方法定量解析城市化对咸宁地区相对湿度和风速的影响。结果表明:近34年来城区和郊区的风速分别以-0.18 m·s-1/10a和-0.05 m·s-1/10a的速率逐渐减小,UMR值(城郊距平差)的变化趋势为-0.13 m·s-1/10a,对应的城市化贡献率为75%,城市化对风速的影响在夏季最为明显,其贡献率为100%。近34年来城区和郊区的相对湿度分别以-1.34%/10a和-2.49%/10a的速度减小,且郊区减小的幅度大于城区的,近10年来城区的相对湿度开始大于郊区的,城市化对咸宁地区相对湿度的影响表现为由“干岛效应”向“湿岛效应”的转换,且“湿岛效应”在夏季表现最为明显。利用UMR和OMR方法计算的风速和相对湿度的变化趋势较为一致,但UMR计算结果表明城市化对风速减小及相对湿度增加的影响更为显著,能更好地反映城市化进程对咸宁地区相对湿度和风速的影响。
中文关键词:城市化  UMR方法  OMR方法  风速  相对湿度
 
Impact Analysis of Urbanization on Wind Speed and Relative Humidity in Xianning Area
Abstract:Annual and seasonal variation characteristics of relative humidity and wind speed in Xianning area are analyzed, and urbanization effects on wind speed and relative humidity are quantitative analyzed by UMR (Urban Minus Rural) and OMR (Observation Minus Reanalysis) methods, by using surface observation data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in 19812014, and using satellite data to realize classification of urban and suburb stations, selecting Chibi as urban station and Chongyang as suburban station. The results show as follows. In recent 34 years, the wind speed in urban and suburban are decreasing in speed of -0.18 m·s-1/10a and -0.05 m·s-1/10a, the variation trend of UMR value (Urban Minus Rural anomaly difference) is -0.13 m·s-1/10a, corresponding urbanization contribution rate is 75%, while the impact of urbanization is the most obvious in summer, the contribution rate is 100%. In recent 34 years, the relative humidity in urban and suburban are decreasing in speed of -1.34%/10a and -2.49%/10a, while the decreasing trend in suburban is greater than in urban. In recent 10 years, the relative humidity in urban is beginning to excess that in suburban, the impact of urbanization on relative humidity transforms from “dry island effect”to“moisture island effect”, and the “moisture island effect” is the most significant in summer. The variation trend of wind speed and relative humidity calculated by UMR method are in consistent with those by OMR method, but the result calculated by UMR method shows that the impact of urbanization on wind speed decreasing and relative humidity increasing are more obvious, which can reflect the impact of urbanization on wind speed and relative humidity in Xianning area better.
Keywords:urbanization  UMR method  OMR method  wind speed  relative humidity
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