北部湾海域灾害性海浪特征及影响天气系统分析
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引用本文:苏志,赵飞,郑凤琴,等.北部湾海域灾害性海浪特征及影响天气系统分析[J].气象与环境科学,2019,42(2):55-61.Su Zhi1,2,Zhao Fei3,Zheng Fengqin1,Luo Xiaoli1,He Ru1,2.Characteristics and Weather Impact System Analysis of Disastrous Wave in Beibu Gulf[J].Meteorological and Environmental Sciences,2019,42(2):55-61.
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苏志,赵飞,郑凤琴,等  
DOI:doi:10.16765/j.cnki.1673-7148.2019.02.008
基金项目:
中文摘要:利用北部湾海域浮标站2015-2018年的海浪观测资料,对北部湾海域的灾害性海浪特征及影响天气系统进行了分析,结果表明:北部湾海域灾害性海浪平均每年出现2.5次,最多年出现4次(2016年);10月出现的灾害性海浪最多,8月的次之;灾害性海浪的最大有效波高3.0~5.0 m,波向以N和NW方位最多,分别占30%;灾害性海浪过程持续时间最长为1190 min,最短为20 min;台风和冷空气是引发灾害性海浪的主要天气系统,台风引发的占60%,冷空气引发的占40%。其中以台风引发的灾害性海浪过程最多、海浪最高、持续时间最长。引发灾害性海浪的台风移动路径绝大部分经过北部湾;东路和中路冷空气更有利于北部湾灾害性海浪形成,灾害性海浪形成时常有一个冷高压位于四川盆地到江汉平原一带,中心气压在1030 hPa以上,北海与海口的最大海平面气压差在4.3 hPa以上。
中文关键词:灾害性海浪  特征  天气系统  北部湾
 
Characteristics and Weather Impact System Analysis of Disastrous Wave in Beibu Gulf
Abstract:The characteristics of disastrous waves and their weather systems were analyzed based on the sea wave’s observation data of buoy station in Beibu Gulf from 2015 to 2018. The results show that disastrous waves occur 2.5 times every year on average and 4 times in the most occurring years (2016). The most disastrous waves occur in October,followed by August. The maximum effective height of disastrous waves ranges from 3.0 m to 5.0 m,and the wave directions of N and NW are the most,accounting for 30% respectively. The longest duration of disastrous waves is 1190 minutes,and the shortest is 20 minutes. Typhoon and cold air are the main weather systems causing disastrous waves,which accounting for 60% and 40% respectively. Typhoon causes the most disastrous waves,the highest waves and the longest duration. Most of the causing disastrous wave’s typhoon passed through the Beibu Gulf. The cold air along the East and Middle paths is more conducive to the formation of disastrous waves in the Beibu Gulf. During the formation of disastrous waves,a cold high often appears in the area from Sichuan Basin to Jianghan Plain,whose central pressure is over 1030 hPa,and the maximum difference of sea level pressure between Beihai and Haikou is over 4.3 hPa.
Keywords:disastrous waves  characteristics  weather system  Beibu Gulf
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