卫星地面站雷电直击效应防护设计探讨
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引用本文:孙俊德,李志鹏,赵洪升,等.卫星地面站雷电直击效应防护设计探讨[J].气象与环境科学,2019,42(2):124-128.Sun Junde1,Li Zhipeng1,Zhao Hongsheng2,Wang Kai1.Discussion on Protection Design of Direct Lightning Strike for Satellite Ground Station[J].Meteorological and Environmental Sciences,2019,42(2):124-128.
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作者单位
孙俊德,李志鹏,赵洪升,等  
DOI:doi:10.16765/j.cnki.1673-7148.2019.02.017
基金项目:
中文摘要:卫星地面站雷电防护工程通常采用接闪杆作为天线主体的雷电直击效应防护措施,接闪杆的高度不仅影响其保护范围,而且影响其截闪概率。通过计算年预计雷击次数对截闪概率进行量化分析,结果表明,截闪概率近似与接闪杆高度平方成正比,采用过高的接闪杆将增大地面站遭受雷击电磁脉冲损坏的风险。为优化接闪杆设计,定义了保护体积的概念,并利用折线法与滚球法分别计算了三维立体空间内的保护范围。结果表明:接闪杆的保护范围与高度呈现非线性相关,当接闪杆超过一定高度(折线法超过30 m,滚球法超过0.8倍滚球半径)后,对保护范围的影响十分有限;当接闪杆高度低于0.4倍滚球半径时,滚球法保护范围较大,反之则折线法保护范围较大。对接闪杆接闪瞬间周边的磁场强度分析结果表明,无屏蔽环境下地面站电子系统与接闪杆的常规距离远小于两者的理论安全距离,实际工程中难以通过增大接闪杆与卫星地面站的间距消除雷击电磁脉冲危害。为降低这一风险,卫星地面站直击雷防护应优先采用天线自带接闪杆的方式,条件不具备时也应尽量避免采用单支高大接闪杆,可选取适当的计算方法,采用多支较低接闪杆共同防护的方案。
中文关键词:雷击发生率  保护范围  折线法  滚球法  磁场强度
 
Discussion on Protection Design of Direct Lightning Strike for Satellite Ground Station
Abstract:The lightning protection project of the satellite ground station usually adopts the lightning rod as the direct lightning protection measure of the antenna main body. The height of the lightning rod not only affects its protection range,but also affects the probability of interception. The probability of interception is quantitative analyzed by calculating the yearly frequency of lighting stroke times. The results show that the probability of intercepting lightning stroke is approximately proportional to the square of the height of the lightning rod. An excessively high lightning rod will increase the risk of damage to the ground station caused by lightning electromagnetic pulse. In order to optimize the design of the lightning rod,the concept of protection volume is defined,and the protection range in the three dimensional space is calculated using the polygon method and the rolling sphere method. The results show that the protection ranges of lightning rod is nonlinear correlated with its height. The influence on the protection range is very limited when the lightning rod exceeds a certain height (polygon method: exceed 30 m,rolling sphere method: exceeds 0.8 times the radius of rolling sphere). When the height of the lightning rod is less than 0.4 times the radius of the rolling sphere,the protection range of the rolling sphere method is larger;otherwise,the protection range of the polygon method is larger. The magnetic induction intensity around the lightning rod when stroked by lightning is analyzed,the conventional distance between the ground station electronic system and the lightning rod is much smaller than the theoretical safety distance.The results show that the damage of lightning electromagnetic pulse could not be eliminated by increasing the distance between the lightning rod and the satellite ground station in practical engineering. In order to reduce this risk,the protection design of direct lightning strike for satellite ground station should be given priority to the way of the antenna bringing its own lightning rod. When the condition is not available,a single tall lightning rod should be avoided as far as possible,several lower ones combined with each other are more applicable with appropriate calculation method carried out.
Keywords:lightning strike probability  protective range  polygon method  rolling sphere method  magnetic field intensity
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